Monday, November 30, 2015

Jack Pile Underpinning

This method can be used when the depth of a suitable bearing capacity subsoil is too deep to make traditional underpinning uneconomic. Jack pile underpinning is quiet, vibration free and flexible since the pile depth can be adjusted to suit subsoil conditions encountered. The existing foundations must be in a good condition since they will have to span over the heads of the pile caps which are cast onto the jack pile heads after the hydraulic jacks have been removed.

Jack Pile Underpinning

Underpinning to Walls

To prevent fracture, damage or settlement of the wall(s) being underpinned the work should always be carried out in short lengths called legs or bays. The length of these bays will depend upon the following factors:

1. Total length of wall to be underpinned.
2. Wall loading.
3. General state of repair and stability of wall and foundation to be underpinned.
4. Nature of subsoil beneath existing foundation.
5. Estimated spanning ability of existing foundation.

Generally suitable bay lengths are:

1000 to 1500 for mass concrete strip foundations supportingwalls of traditional construction.
1500 to 3000 for reinforced concrete strip foundations supporting walls of moderate loading.
In all the cases the total sum of the unsupported lengths of wall should not exceed 25% of the total wall length.
The sequence of bays should be arranged so that working in adjoining bays is avoided until one leg of underpinning has been completed, pinned and cured sufficiently to support the wall above.

Thursday, November 26, 2015

Underpinning - General Precautions

Underpinning the main objective of most underpinning work is to transfer the load carried by a foundation from its existing bearing level to a new level at a lower depth. Underpinning techniques can also be used to replace an existing weak foundation. An underpinning operation may be necessary for one or more of the following reasons:

1. Uneven Settlement this could be caused by uneven loading of the building, unequal resistance of the soil action of tree roots or cohesive soil settlement.

2. Increase in Loading this could be due to the addition of an
extra storey or an increase in imposed loadings such as that
which may occur with a change of use.

3. Lowering of Adjacent Ground usually required when
constructing a basement adjacent to existing foundations.

General Precautions before any form of underpinning work iscommenced the following precautions should be taken:

1. Notify adjoining owners of proposed works giving full details and temporary shoring or tying.

2. Carry out a detailed survey of the site, the building to be underpinned and of any other adjoining or adjacent building or structures. A careful record of any defects found should be made and where possible agreed with the adjoining owner(s) before being lodged in a safe place.

3. Indicators or `tell tales' should be fixed over existing cracks so that any subsequent movements can be noted and monitored.

4. If settlement is the reason for the underpinning works a thorough investigation should be carried out to establish the cause and any necessary remedial work put in hand before any underpinning works are started.

5. Before any underpinning work is started the loads on the building to be underpinned should be reduced as much as possible by removing the imposed loads from the floors and installing any props and/or shoring which is required.

6. Any services which are in the vicinity of the proposed underpinning works should be identified, traced, carefully exposed, supported and protected as necessary.

Pneumatic Caissons

These are sometimes called compressed air caissons and are similar in concept to open caissons. They can be used in difficult subsoil conditions below water level and have a pressurised lower working chamber to provide a safe dry working area. Pneumatic caissons can be made of concrete whereby they sink under their own weight or they can be constructed from steel with hollow walls which can be filled with water to act as ballast. These caissons are usually designed to form part of the finished structure.

Typical Caissons Details

These are box-like structures which are similar in concept to cofferdams but they usually form an integral part of the finished structure. They can be economically constructed and installed in water or soil where the depth exceeds 18000 There are 4 basic types of caisson namely:

Wednesday, November 4, 2015

Installing Steel Sheet Piles

To ensure that the sheet piles are pitched and installed vertically a driving trestle or guide frame is used. These are usually purpose built to accommodate a panel of 10 to 12 pairs of piles. The piles are lifted into position by a crane and driven by means of percussion piling hammer or alternatively they can be pushed into the ground by hydraulic rams acting against the weight of the power pack which is positioned over the heads of the pitched piles.

Installing Steel Sheet Piles

Steel Sheet Piling

Apart from cofferdam work steel sheet can be used as a conventional timbering material in excavations and to form permanent retaining walls. Three common formats of steel sheet piles with interlocking joints are available with a range of section sizes and strengths up to a usual maximum length of 18000

Steel Sheet Piling